Emisije CO2 i NOx

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Re: Emisije CO2 i NOx

Post od Geza » 28 Mar 2018, 17:15

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Re: Emisije CO2 i NOx

Post od Geza » 29 Mar 2018, 23:13

VW storing around 300,000 diesels at 37 facilities around U.S.
https://www.reuters.com/article/us-volk ... SKBN1H50GQ

(Reuters) - Volkswagen has taken parking lots to a whole new level in the United States and will not be emptying them soon.

Volkswagen AG (VOWG_p.DE) has paid more than $7.4 billion to buy back about 350,000 U.S. diesel vehicles through mid-February, a recent court filing shows. The German automaker has been storing hundreds of thousands of vehicles around the United States for months.

Volkswagen has 37 secure storage facilities around the United States housing nearly 300,000 vehicles, the filing from the program’s independent administrator said. The lots include a shuttered suburban Detroit football stadium, a former Minnesota paper mill and a sun-bleached desert graveyard near Victorville, California.

VW spokeswoman Jeannine Ginivan said in a statement on Wednesday that the storage facility in Victorville, California, is one of many “to ensure the responsible storage of vehicles that are bought back under the terms of the Volkswagen” diesel settlements.

“These vehicles are being stored on an interim basis and routinely maintained in a manner to ensure their long-term operability and quality, so that they may be returned to commerce or exported once U.S. regulators approve appropriate emissions modifications,” she said.

In total, VW has agreed to spend more than $25 billion in the United States for claims from owners, environmental regulators, states and dealers and offered to buy back about 500,000 polluting U.S. vehicles. The buy backs will continue through the end of 2019.

The court filing said through Dec. 31 Volkswagen had reacquired 335,000 diesel vehicles, resold 13,000 and destroyed about 28,000 vehicles. As of the end of last year, VW was storing 294,000 vehicles around the country.

VW must buy back or fix 85 percent of the vehicles involved by June 2019 or face higher payments for emissions.

The company said in February it has repaired or fixed nearly 83 percent of covered vehicles and expects to soon hit the requirement.

Through mid-February VW has issued 437,273 letters offering nearly $8 billion in compensation and buybacks.

In April 2017 Volkswagen was sentenced to three years probation after pleading guilty to three felony counts and paid $4.3 billion in federal penalties. The automaker in September 2015 admitted to circumventing the emissions control system in U.S. diesel vehicles for vehicles sold since 2009, prompting the resignation of the company’s chief executive.

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Re: Emisije CO2 i NOx

Post od Heinz » 08 Apr 2018, 21:58

http://www.iea.org/geco/emissions/?utm_ ... uffer80bfe
Latest trends in CO2 emissions

Global energy-related CO2 emissions grew by 1.4% in 2017, reaching a historic high of 32.5 gigatonnes, a resumption of growth after three years of global emissions remaining flat.

The increase in CO2 emissions, however, was not universal. While most major economies saw a rise, some others experienced declines, including the United States, United Kingdom, Mexico and Japan. The biggest decline drop came from the United States, mainly because of higher deployment of renewables.

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Re: Emisije CO2 i NOx

Post od dragvorl » 12 Apr 2018, 00:03

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Re: Emisije CO2 i NOx

Post od Geza » 20 Apr 2018, 21:56

Borba protiv dizelaša ima zabrinjavajuću nuspojavu
https://www.vecernji.hr/auti/borba-prot ... vu-1239795

Europska unija od automobilske industrije traži da se do 2021. svede u prosječnih 95 grama CO2 po kilometru. S progonom dizelaša i uz porast broja benzinaca, to će teško postići

Prvi put u zadnjih deset godina u Europi je porasla razina emisije ugljikova dioksida kod novih automobila, upozorava analitička tvrtka JATO Dynamics. Prosječna emisija CO2 prošle je godine bila 0,3 g/km veća nego godinu prije. Analiza je pokrila 23 europska tržišta, a rezultati su pokazali da je 2017. prosječna emisija CO2 iznosila 118,1 g/km.

U tom je povećanju emisije ugljikova dioksida značajnu ulogu odigrala hajka na dizelske motore. Naime, kako pada potražnja za dizelašima, tako raste broj kupaca automobila pogonjenih benzinskim motorom, a benzinci emitiraju više CO2 nego dizelaši. Dizelaši su, pak, na listi za odstrel zbog visokih vrijednosti dušikovih dioksida (NO2). Dakle, progonom dizelaša želi se sniziti razina jednog od plinova opasnih po zdravlje, a u praksi se time povećala razina drugog, stakleničkog plina. Povećana koncentracija stakleničkih plinova uzrokuje prekomjerno zagrijavanje Zemlje, a to pak rezultira velikim klimatskim poremećajima.

Uz pad broja dizelaša, drugi važan čimbenik u porastu prosječnih vrijednosti ugljikova dioksida je i dalje rastući interes za SUV modelima, koji – zbog specifičnog oblika karoserije – u prosjeku emitiraju više ugljikova dioksida. Konkretno, podaci za 2017. pokazuju da dizelski automobili registrirani na promatranim tržištima u prosjeku emitiraju 117,9 g CO2/km. Benzincima je, pak, prosjek 123,4 g CO2/km. Razlika je 5,5 g/km u korist dizelaša. Nadalje, prosječna snaga kod dizelaša registriranih u Europi iznosi 142 KS, dok benzinci imaju prosječna 123 konja.

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Prostor podsjeća na parking u ogromnom prostoru na otvorenom - ali to je zapravo povratni efekt skandala Volkswagena s emisijom ispušnih plinova.

S pojačanom negativnom percepcijom dizelaša u javnosti, u kombinaciji s pritiskom koji vlade pojedinih država rade putem ograničenja prometovanja i viših poreznih kategorija za automobile s dizelskim motorom, lani je broj novoregistriranih dizelaša u Europi pao za 7,9 posto, na 6,77 milijuna primjeraka. Dizelski su automobili tako 2017. bili zaslužni za samo 43,8% registracija, što je 11,1 posto manje od udjela zabilježenog 2011. kad su dizelaši bili na vrhuncu. Ovo je ujedno najniži udjel dizelaša još od 2003., kad su dizelski automobili zauzimali 43,4% tržišta. Istovremeno, u 2017. su registracije benzinaca porasle 10,9% te su dosegnule najvišu razinu od 2003. Kupci koji su se od dizelaša okrenuli benzincima te i kod njih traže više snage i okretnog momenta posljedično će i u budućnosti emitirati više ugljikova dioksida nego što bi to bio slučaj da voze jednako snažan automobil s dizelskim motorom.

Europski cilj od prosječnih 95 grama CO2 po kilometru do zadane 2021. godine bit će teško postići, jer se električni automobili ne uspijevaju nametnuti kao adekvatno rješenje. Oni su, naime, i dalje velikoj većini građana preskupi (posebno oni s pristojnom autonomijom), autonomija im je u većini slučajeva i dalje nedostatna, punionica tek u rijetkim zemljama odnosno gradovima ima dovoljno i adekvatno raspoređenih. Nije nebitno ni što električna energija tek manjim dijelom dolazi iz čistih, ekoloških izvora. Slamka spasa mogli bi biti hibridni automobili, jer ipak bolje udovoljavaju potrebama prosječnog vozača, a emitiraju manje CO2 od automobila s klasičnim pogonom. No, zbog pada udjela dizelaša, na tržištu je zabilježen tek neznatan rast prodaje modela s alternativnim pogonom.

Potražnja za SUV-ovima i lani je rasla, a projekcije tržišta upućuju na to da će se takav trend nastaviti i u godinama koje slijede. Na tržište su uvedeni mnogi manji SUV modeli, također i s hibridnom tehnologijom. To je SUV-ovima pomoglo da emisiju CO2 smanje sa 134,9 g/km (koliko su imali 2016.) na 133 g/km. Bez obzira na to, SUV-ovi su pridonijeli ukupnom povećanju emisije ugljikova dioksida u Europi jer oni emitiraju znatno više CO2 od prosječnih vrijednosti zabilježenih 2017. za nove automobile (118,1 g/km). To se pokazalo posebno kobnim u kombinaciji s povećanim prelaskom na benzinske motore, a najvidljivije je na najvećim tržištima. Pad potražnje za dizelašima u Njemačkoj i Velikoj Britaniji mjeri se u dvoznamenkastim postocima, a u Francuskoj i Španjolskoj on iznosi 5,4 odnosno 8,1%. Kao rezultat toga, ukupna emisija CO2 porasla je na svim tim tržištima. Hrvatski vozači i dalje ne odustaju od dizelaša, pa mi sada ne bilježimo tako velik skok u vrijednostima ugljikova dioksida koje emitiraju novi automobili lani pristigli na naše tržište. Količina CO2 u Hrvatskoj je rasla za 0,9 g/km te smo na osmom mjestu s prosječnih 112 grama ugljikova dioksida po kilometru. Najčišće automobile lani su kupovali Norvežani (83,6 g CO2/km), a najprljavije Švicarci (133,2 g CO2/km).
Toyota je najčišća marka

Na razini automobilskih marki, Peugeot – lider iz 2016. – pao je na drugo mjesto jer mu se prosječna emisija CO2 u gami povećala za 2,7 g/km te je 2017. iznosila 104,5 g CO2/km. Za to je krivo jačanje SUV segmenta, odnosno tržišni uspjeh Peugeota 3008. Toyota je unutar 20 najprodavanijih marki u Europi ponijela titulu najčišće, a na prvo je mjesto skočila s trećeg, koje je 2016. držala s prosječnih 103,9 grama ugljikova dioksida po kilometru. Prosječnu emisiju CO2 u svojoj je gami smanjila za 2,7 g/km, na 101,2 g/km. To može zahvaliti pojačanom interesu kupaca za hibridne modele, na koje otpada gotovo 50 posto lani novoregistriranih Toyoti. Preostalih 42% čine benzinci, a 7,5% dizelaši. Ovaj Toyotin uspjeh zorno pokazuje da su hibridi vjerojatno najbolja alternativa dizelašima. Barem kratkoročno.

Iza Toyote, na drugom mjestu ljestvice najčišćih marki smjestio se Peugeot (104,5 g CO2/km), a na trećem je Citroën (105,5 g CO2/km). Slijede Renault, Suzuki, Fiat, Nissan, Škoda, Dacia, Seat i Volkswagen – kao marke s prosječnom emisijom nižom od 120 g CO2/km. Kia ima okruglo 120, Ford 120,8, BMW 128,8 g CO2/km. Na dnu ove ljestvice je Mazda s prosječnih 131,2 grama ugljikova dioksida po kilometru.
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Re: Emisije CO2 i NOx

Post od Geza » 08 Maj 2018, 13:52

Opet VW/Audi.

Audi investigated for possible new emissions defeat device, report says
http://europe.autonews.com/article/2018 ... eport-says

Audi's A6 is one of the models allegedly being investigated for previously unknown defeat device software.

FRANKFURT -- German motor vehicle authority KBA is probing Audi to see whether its diesel A6/A7 models have been fitted with previously unknown defeat device software, German weekly Der Spiegel reported.

In Germany, about 30,000 diesel vehicles conforming to the Euro 6 emissions standard may have been fitted with illegal emissions software, Der Spiegel said on Tuesday. Production of the A6 model has been halted in response to the investigation, the report said.

"The KBA has requested a hearing on suspicion the Audi V6TDI A6/A7 models have been fitted with an illegal defeat device," Der Spiegel cited a spokesman for Germany's transport ministry as saying.

Audi and Germany's transport ministry were not immediately available for comment.
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Re: Emisije CO2 i NOx

Post od Geza » 27 Maj 2018, 10:51

Vozila na struju će povećati zagađenje vazduha u Kini
https://www.b92.net/automobili/aktuelno ... id=1397370

Masovnija upotreba električnih automobila trebalo bi da u kineskim gradovima smanji nivo zagađenja vazduha izazvanog korišćenjem vozila sa motorima sa unutrašnjim sagorevanjem. Međutim, najnovija studija pokazuje da bi u stvarnosti vozila na struju mogla da dovedu do suprotnog efekta – da povećaju zagađenje u toj zemlji.

Kineska vlada odlučna je u nameri da ta zemlja postane svetski lider u razvoju i proizvodnji električnih automobila. Zato vlasti putem subvencija ohrabruju proizvođače automobila i kupce da se okreću vozilima na električni pogon. Problem je što se ubedljivo najviše struje u Kini dobija iz elektrana na ugalj.

"Prestrojavanje na električne automobile ne znači da time automatski eliminišete upotrebu fosilnih goriva, jer se struja za njihov pogon često dobija upravo iz fosilnih goriva, a u Kini to znači iz uglja", objašnjava Skot Kenedi iz vašingtonskog Centra za strateške i međunarodne studije (CSIS).

"Stoga bi masovna upotreba elektroautomobila u Kini mogla da znači samo premeštanje zagađenja vazduha iz jednog dela zemlje u drugi", kaže Kenedi.

Analiza koju je 2017. objavio Saobraćajni institut Univerziteta u Mičigenu pokazuje da automobil sa motorom sa unutrašnjim sagorevanjem (SUS) koji prosečno troši ispod 7 l/100 km, manje zagađuje životnu okolinu nego prosečan električni auto koji se izrađuje u Kini.

Izvor iz kojeg se dobija struja nije jedini problem vozila na električni pogon

Naučnici sa Univerziteta Harvard i Univerziteta Cinghua u Pekingu došli su do rezultata da sama proizvodnja automobila na struju, ali i plug-in hibrida u Kini generiše 50% više emisija gasova odgovornih za efekat staklene bašte, nego proizvodnja konvencionalnog automobila sa motorom SUS.

Prema podacima iz 2015. godine 72% električne energije u Kini proizvodilo se u elektranama na ugalj. Vlasti u toj zemlji planiraju da do 2040. godine ovaj procent spuste ispod 50 odsto, ali kako je to tek za 22 godine, u međuvremenu će elektrane na ugalj nastaviti da zagađuju vazduh dok proizvode struju za “čista” električna vozila.
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Re: Emisije CO2 i NOx

Post od Ji 4Tze » 27 Maj 2018, 11:21

Prema podacima iz 2015 :)
Pa :lol:

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Re: Emisije CO2 i NOx

Post od ljubitelj » 27 Maj 2018, 12:43

I to jos iz SAD koji su ubedljivo najveci zagadjivac u svemu, i takodje proizvode struju na ugalj kao osnovu. :loool:

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Re: Emisije CO2 i NOx

Post od Geza » 07 Jun 2018, 22:33

Lista vozila koja trenutno ispunjavaju Euro 6D-Temp propise o emisiji štetnih gasova.
https://www.focus.de/auto/news/abgas-sk ... 02787.html

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Re: Emisije CO2 i NOx

Post od dragvorl » 07 Jun 2018, 22:44

Firmin Focus dizel ispunjava. 😀
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Re: Emisije CO2 i NOx

Post od Geza » 11 Jun 2018, 22:02

Germany orders Daimler to recall 774,000 diesels in Europe
http://europe.autonews.com/article/2018 ... -in-europe

MUNICH -- Daimler was ordered to recall 774,000 vehicles in Europe after two meetings with Germany’s top regulator failed to allay concerns about irregularities in the Mercedes-Benz maker’s diesel emissions.

The carmaker will upgrade engine software in Mercedes Vito vans as well as the GLC SUV and Mercedes C-class sedan, Transport Minister Andreas Scheuer said Monday in a statement from Berlin, after meeting with Daimler CEO Dieter Zetsche for a second time in two weeks.

The government is ordering “an immediate formal recall because of prohibited shutoff devices,” Scheuer said.

While a setback for a company that has steadfastly denied cheating on diesel emissions, the software-focused recall means Daimler escaped more costly measures such as fines or a hardware fix. Speaking with reporters after the announcement, Zetsche said talks with the government had been “constructive.”

Germany had ratcheted up pressure on Daimler to specify models and the number of vehicles that needed recalling to adjust their exhaust systems, criticizing the company’s piecemeal response to concerns about excessive pollution from its diesel vehicles. The recall comes nearly three years after Volkswagen’s cheating scandal.

Unlike VW, which admitted duping official emissions tests and faces costs of some 26 billion euros ($31 billion) in fines, buybacks and recalls globally, Daimler has rejected wrongdoing. As the diesel fallout rumbles on, German prosecutors also on Monday named Rupert Stadler, head of VW’s Audi unit, a suspect in the cheating scandal.

Unapproved functions

Germany’s automotive regulator KBA found five unapproved software functions in Daimler’s Euro 6 diesel engines, affecting as many as 1 million vehicles in Germany, Bild am Sonntag reported Sunday. This follows the KBA instructing the carmaker in May to recall 4,923 Vito vans worldwide that don’t comply with regulations. Daimler at the time said it would go to court if necessary to overturn the order. The models aren’t currently available in the U.S., according to the brand’s U.S. site.

“We don’t see any evidence that Daimler was designing software to deliberately cheat on emission testing,” said Arndt Ellinghorst, an analyst with Evercore ISI in London, who estimated the cost to be less than 100 million euros. “With this recall, fines are off the table.”

Daimler already voluntarily recalled some 3 million vehicles in the EU last year, alongside similar moves by VW and BMW, for software updates to improve emissions performance.

Liberal interpretations of loose European Union rules on car emissions, ultimately resulting in many cities failing EU pollution limits, have led to a number of spats between authorities and carmakers. Daimler relies on diesel vehicles for profit and to lower the carbon-dioxide output of its vehicles to meet environmental regulations.

Threat of fine

Scheuer had threatened the Stuttgart-based carmaker with as much as 3.75 billion euros in penalties related to diesel-engine emissions irregularities, Spiegel magazine reported following Zetsche’s earlier meeting. For context, during previous standoffs on diesel practices, the ministry failed to make much headway on holding carmakers accountable.

In 2016, Opel, then owned by General Motors, didn’t end up facing sanctions after then-Transport Minister Alexander Dobrindt raised doubts about the legality of devices used in its engine software. The same year, Fiat Chrysler Automobiles snubbed Dobrindt’s request for a meeting to discuss emissions.

The country’s automotive industry has been under intense scrutiny since Volkswagen revealed in September 2015 it had rigged as many as 11 million diesel-powered cars to cheat on official emissions tests.

Municipalities, battling excessive levels of smog-inducing nitrogen oxide mainly produced by diesel vehicles, have been considering bans. Hamburg made the first move last month with restrictions on two streets. Mercedes recalled more than 3 million cars across Europe almost a year ago for a software patch for their emissions systems.
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Re: Emisije CO2 i NOx

Post od Geza » 13 Jun 2018, 19:59

VW fined $1.2B by German prosecutors over diesel cheating
http://europe.autonews.com/article/2018 ... l-cheating

BERLIN -- Volkswagen was fined 1 billion euros ($1.18 billion) over diesel emissions cheating in what amounts to one of the highest ever fines imposed by German authorities against a company, public prosecutors said on Wednesday.

The prosecutor's office in Brunswick, Germany ordered the fine against the carmaker for having "impermissible software functions" in 10.7 million cars between 2007 and 2015, Volkswagen said.

As a result of the fine being imposed, regulatory offense proceedings against Volkswagen will be terminated. VW said it assumes this will help to settle further administrative proceedings against VW in Europe.

"Following thorough examination, Volkswagen AG accepted the fine and it will not lodge an appeal against it. Volkswagen AG, by doing so, admits its responsibility for the diesel crisis and considers this as a further major step towards the latter being overcome," the company said in a statement on Wednesday.

The German fine follows a U.S. plea agreement from January 2017, when VW agreed to pay a criminal fine of $4.3 billion to resolve criminal and civil penalties.

"We work with vigor on dealing with our past," VW CEO Herbert Diess said in a separate statement. "Further steps are necessary to gradually restore trust again in the company and the auto industry."

VW has earmarked costs of about 26 billion euros related to rigged engine-control software in as many as 11 million diesel cars worldwide. The cheating was uncovered by U.S. authorities in September 2015 and triggered the deepest business crisis in the automaker's history.
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Re: Emisije CO2 i NOx

Post od Geza » 11 Jul 2018, 23:57

Stuttgart to start ban of older diesels in 2019
http://europe.autonews.com/article/2018 ... ls-in-2019

FRANKFURT -- Stuttgart will bar only the most polluting diesel vehicles from its streets next year and will seek to avoid a widening of the ban by taking measures to improve air quality, a state ministry said.

Stuttgart, the heartland of Germany's automotive industry, plans to start banning diesel vehicles meeting the Euro 4 or older emissions standards starting in January 2019, the state ministry of Baden-Wuerttemberg said on Wednesday.

"We want to avoid bans on Euro 5 diesels with a comprehensive package of clean air measures," said Andreas Schwarz, leader of the Greens' parliamentary group in the Baden-Wuerttemberg regional assembly.

But he also said the city's clean-air measures, such as an expansion of public transportation and electric mobility, would need to have a sufficient effect on pollution levels.

There has been a global backlash against diesel cars since Volkswagen Group admitted in 2015 to cheating exhaust tests meant to limit emissions of particulate matter and nitrogen oxide (NOx).

Dozens of German cities including Hamburg, Munich and Stuttgart exceed European Union limits on NOx, which is known to cause respiratory diseases.

If by mid-2019 it does not look like the measures Stuttgart has taken to improve air quality will bring its NOx levels within the legal limits, the ban could be widened to Euro 5 diesels in January 2020, the Baden-Wuerttemberg ministry said.

Germany's top administrative court ruled in February in favor of allowing major cities to ban heavily polluting diesel cars.

Soon after, Hamburg became the first German city to ban diesel cars that do not meet the latest Euro 6 standards from some busy streets, seeking to raise pressure on carmakers to undertake costly retrofits.

A regional court in Stuttgart had demanded last month the state of Baden-Wuerttemberg, home to carmakers Mercedes-Benz and VW unit Porsche, draw up a firm plan for when it will ban Euro 5 diesels.

Bans on diesel vehicles from city centers are also planned in Paris, Madrid, Mexico City and Athens by 2025, while the mayor of Copenhagen wants to bar new diesel cars from entering the city center as soon as next year.
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Re: Emisije CO2 i NOx

Post od Geza » 10 Avg 2018, 12:40

Automakers pull models, halt output as WLTP deadline roils European market
http://europe.autonews.com/article/2018 ... s-european

A double shot of new emissions tests is shaking up the European auto market this year, disrupting production and sales, and weighing on automakers’ profits.

The two tests are the WLTP, or Worldwide harmonized Light vehicles Test Procedure, and its on-road companion, the RDE, or Real Driving Emissions. They replace the NEDC, or New European Driving Cycle, which has been criticized as understating emissions – especially of toxic nitrogen oxides -- by not reflecting real-world conditions and offering loopholes for automakers.

EU rules have required new models to undergo the testing starting Sept. 1, 2017, but the real challenge for manufacturers has been to test existing models by Sept. 1 of this year. Many models have required new emissions equipment such as particulate filters – because the WLTP generally produces higher pollution figures – and testing stations have been operating nonstop. However, it is not clear whether all models can be certified in time.

“It’s like a multidimensional game of chess,” said Mark Fulthorpe, director of light vehicle production forecasting at IHS Markit. “People have not realized just what it was going to take to achieve this.”

Every variant of a model -- thousands in all -- must undergo testing, because different powertrain and option packages can affect carbon dioxide emissions. The WLTP is longer and more involved while tacking on the RDE adds time and complexity.

Any car not certified by Sept. 1 cannot legally be sold in Europe, although exemptions are available to manufacturers, a process known as derogation. That has meant an inventory balancing act for automakers. They need to quickly sell cars that are neither WLTP-compliant nor derogated, and at the same time do not want to build up unwanted stock of models that have already been certified.

Models pulled, output stalled

The new rules have “left automakers trying to sell their vehicles in Europe with little choice but to pull models from sale or stall production as they grapple through the regulatory minefield,” IHS said in a note in July.

The number of models requiring certification has led to bottlenecks at the agencies that perform emissions tests. TUEV Sud, one of about 20 organizations in Germany that do such tests, is running 24 hours a day, six days a week to accommodate the manufacturers ahead of the deadline, spokesman Vincenzo Luca said.

A complete test cycle for an engine family can take up to two months, Luca said, because the new tests are much more complicated than the NEDC. Traffic jams and other issues can mean that the RDE process must start all over. In addition, older models first certified under NEDC take much longer than ones designed for the WLTP, Luca said.

“It was clear to us and our customers that there would be a lot more testing than under the NEDC,” he said, adding that some manufacturers were very early in booking testing time, while those that came later might face delays. TUEV Sud can perform 12,000 tests annually at three facilities; it is increasing capacity at its Stuttgart facility, but that will not be ready until 2019. “Next year, there will be even more variants” including plug-in hybrids, which take more time to test than internal combustion engines, Luca said.

Automakers say they were not given enough time to prepare. Because the EU’s final WLTP regulation was not published until late July of last year, “it was simply not possible for a manufacturer to start WLTP testing ahead of this time,” a spokeswoman for European automotive industry association ACEA said.

“This is not an insignificant effort, especially considering that it comes at the same time that they have to deal with the new RDE regulation. Consequently, the process of obtaining EU approval has slowed, resulting in planned production being stopped or delayed,” she added.

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Missing models

The effects are being felt at car retailers. Many models have been taken off the market until they can be certified, meaning car buyers and dealers cannot order them. “Our users are confused,” said Philipp Sayler von Amende, CEO for the German arm of carwow.com, an online service that connects buyers and dealers. “They can find a car on our platform, but they can’t order it.” Carwow.com’s survey of dealers in Germany and the UK has found that at certain times, entire brands were not able to be ordered.

This year, BMW has taken models including the X1, X2, X5, X6 and 550i out of production at various times. The group was able to certify almost all its models by March, but CO2 results were higher for many variants. “Due to the complexity of the BMW Group portfolio, the process of adjusting our entire vehicle fleet to the new statutory requirements is carried out in a step-by-step manner,” a BMW spokesman said. “This leads to planned offer interruptions for certain models with lower sales volumes.” BMW said all its gasoline and hybrid models have now been fitted with particulate filters, and diesel engines have multi-stage emissions after treatment that includes selective catalytic reduction technology. Despite the challenges, BMW said it still expects to reach its sales targets.

Volkswagen Group has had to certify hundreds of drivetrain and option combinations at its VW, Audi, Skoda, Seat and Porsche brands. As a consequence, VW Group CEO Herbert Diess said in June that production of up to 250,000 cars could be delayed until after the summer holidays to avoid unwanted inventory.

“Within the Volkswagen brand alone, we need to test more than 200 model variants and have them type-approved within a very short space of time,” Diess said in a news release. “We must expect production interruptions in the third quarter.”

Justin Cox, director of global production forecasting at LMC Automotive, said VW and other automakers were adjusting their production schedule around the test deadline. “They don’t want to be building stock they can’t sell – there’s a massive cost to holding onto inventory,” he said.

Cox added he expected that European production would be about 5 percent higher in the second quarter as non-WLTP certified cars were made to meet the derogation deadline, and also to plug any holes in the lineup for models that were taken out of the range for certification. That could be offset by a decline in the third quarter, while dealers still had “derogated” models available and any non-certified cars are taken off production lines. IHS’ Fulthorpe said he expected to see a similar pattern, but later in the year.

Renault Group CEO Carlos Ghosn warned in February that WLTP certification would have an effect on operations until spring 2019. “We don't know how quickly the type approvals will be given,” he said. “We don't know if customers will be willing to pay the new prices because we need to add technologies."

Carwow.com’s survey of British and German dealers this spring found that many Renault models were not available to order. A spokeswoman for Renault said that delivery time for certain models could be affected, adding that dealers would help customers find “the best solution for them.” As of mid-July, about 75 percent of Renault models had received WLTP certification, she added.

Some automakers, however, said that the new tests were not having a big effect. A Ford of Europe spokesman said that although the “regulatory challenge was significant due to the late development of the requirements,” customers were not affected. According to carwow.com’s dealer survey in Germany and the UK, nearly all Toyota and Volvo models remained open to order, and PSA Group said in July that all its models had undergone WLTP certification.

Mixed news

Sayler von Amende of carwow.com and Stephen Latham, the head of operations at UK dealer association NFDA, said dealers and consumers were struggling to understand the effect of the new tests. “I don't think consumers understand the full ramifications yet,” said Latham, whose group represents 4,000 franchisees in the UK. “Manufacturers haven't been coherent because they're all in a different situation.”

While dealers and car buyers might be inconvenienced now, they could benefit if – as expected – automakers offer generous incentives and lease deals to sell noncompliant cars before the Sept. 1 deadline. “There will be both consumer and dealer incentives,” Latham said. “There will have to be to sell all the old vehicles. I can see them being quite attractive products for consumers to buy.”

Carbon-based taxation

Another area of great uncertainty for private and especially fleet buyers is emissions-based taxation. Currently, about 20 EU countries use CO2 levels as a reference, and some cars could be pushed into a higher tax band based on WLTP or NEDC-correlated results. In an example given by VW, emissions for the Up GTI have risen to 126 gram per kilometer under the new test, compared with 110g/km under the NEDC. In France, where a pollution penalty starts at 120g/km, that would mean an additional registration fee of 140 euros.

So far, the UK has said that the correlated NEDC results will be used until 2020, but that raises a question about cars that produce higher adjusted emissions numbers. The rules have not yet been clarified in Germany, France and many other countries. An analysis by JATO Dynamics last year estimated that the higher CO2 figures could mean an additional 600 million euros in fees paid by consumers.

Repairing trust

Analysts said that the upheaval from the WLTP could last until spring 2019 or longer, but that in the long run the new emissions tests would benefit consumers and automakers by easing some of the mistrust following the Volkswagen diesel-cheating scandal.

“There will naturally be a period of months when dealers and buyers are confused especially as they compare different testing results based on two measurement methods,” Sayler von Amende said. “Eventually, it will clear up, as the new test results become standard.”

Fulthorpe said results from the WLTP would help set the baseline for the next decade of emissions testing. “I’m sure the industry wants to get to a point where it has a better relationship with consumers and legislators,” he said. “If the industry can get through these next few emissions cycles, that’s a very good place for everybody.”
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